Elena Lauren

Ms Elena Lauren

Technical Architect at MindMajix Technologies Pvt. Ltd.

Mindmajix Technologies, INC


Types of Cyber Security Threats & Prevention Methods

In today’s article, we will discuss cyber security threats and the importance of cyber security policies within an organization.

So what is Cyber Security Threat?

A threat is a threat which endangers a system or a practice. In the cyber security world, a threat refers to a process where it causes vital damage to the computer systems. It can be classified as an activity that might happen or might not happen but it has enough potential to cause considerable damage.

These threats can be exposed to a single computer system or a network of systems.

Is cyber security threat is really harmful?

Well, it depends upon the activity and the computer system it is affected. This is also classified as a type of cyber security threat that is experienced.


It is one of the most complicated threats when compared to others. On an analysis and observation, most of the banking threats come from Trojan family itself. They are able to hide from antivirus software and their primary purpose is to steal vital banking information which ultimately compromises your bank account and transactions.


I am sure most of them are aware of this term, it is one of the popular cyber security threat to the computer systems. It is a piece of code or program which replicates itself and once it is hosted on the computer system it will cause damage to the entire system. Most of the time it is used for monetizing individuals. Hackers inject the virus in different forms and once the systems are affected with the virus only the hackers will be able to allow access to the system again. In order to clear the virus, they demand money from the users.

For example Ransomware , it has destructed hundreds of individuals and companies.


It is considered to be one of the harmless threat to the computer system. But it replicates itself and has a chance of spreading from one computer to another computer within the network systems. Further, it will eat up the entire hard disk space as it replicates itself.


It is kind of a Malware, once the system is affected by this then the user activity or certain activity of the user on the computer system can be spied. Based on your activity, the hacker will scam you based on your interest. For example: if you have constantly browsed Xbox products then the hacker will come up with a very convincing scam on Xbox and finally cheat you.


It is one the tricky threat to the general users. Usually, once these scareware's find their way to the computer system and once they are installed, it will immediately alert the user that and show information that your system is actually infected with the number of viruses and prompt you to buy anti-malware and antivirus software which are bogus most of the time.


This is one of the powerful threat where most of the information is tracked. So based on your keystrokes, keylogger will be able to keep a track of your activity. With the help of this program, the hacker will be able to find out your personal information like username and password.


This is not a harmful threat but it is one of the annoying factors once you are affected. Once this is installed, your computer will pop up a lot of ads ( shows both non-adult material and adult material).


It is a fake website where the common users will be able to enter their username and password within the login form and these details are not actually verified across the server but these details are actually captured within the attacker controlled server. Thus it helps in storing all the vital information from the users.


Bluesnarfing is a process of obtaining unauthorized access to specific mobile phones, laptops or PDA via Bluetooth connection. Once such connection is established then the attacker will be able to steal photos, messages and contacts etc.


DDoS stands for Distributed Denial of Service.

With this process, the attacker will divert a traffic to a certain website and causes the server to collapse. During this time, it will be helpful for the attacker to obtain certain sensitive data. This kind of trick is generally popular.

Browser Hijackers:

This can be considered to be a vital threat to the computer users. Using this trick, the attacker will be able to control the user Browser session and will be able to manipulate their actions. This is extremely dangerous when the user is trying to do an online transaction, the hijacker will be able to take control on this and has an ability to change the account transfer destination and the account details.

Virus Document:

A few years ago we were asked not to install any EXE files from the internet if you are not sure of. Because within the installation of an unknown EXE file will also enable doors for a lot of virus installations without the user notice. The same way nowadays with the help of technology, hackers are able to send virus or malware with documents, such as PDF’s etc.

SQL Injection:

With SQL injection it will not harm the end user but it will cause unauthorized access to the database and the hijacker will be able to gain access to all the vital information that is stored in the database.

So we have different types of cyber security threats that we have gone through but all of these threats can be prevented and has any real time solutions?

Yes, all of these threats can be mitigated by following certain rules and regulations and maintaining security standards.


  1. Inculcate a habit of not using passwords but start using passphrases. This will secure the authentication and helps you stay safe.

  2. Activate Windows firewalls so that the security barrier is raised to next level.

  3. Invest in good Antivirus and Anti-Malware software

  4. Stop installing cracked software, if not then it will open doors for a lot of spyware installation.

  5. If you are using online storage spaces like, Google Drive, Dropbox then please make sure you encrypt your data by using online encrypted services. This way if these big companies have face any data breach you don't have to worry about your data loss.

  6. Secure your Wifi networks with secure passphrase rather than a password and make sure the network is WPA2 encryption.

  7. Make sure your social media settings are appropriate.

  8. Secure your mobile phone's, always make a habit to download apps from Google Play Store or Apple Store.

  9. Please do not store your credit card or debit card details on websites.

  10. If you got hacked, please do not panic, please consult an appropriate ethical hacker or help from your IT team.

  11. Never Trust emails, a lot of fake emails are sent out by hackers that you have won x number of dollars. In reality, they use your personal information and try to hack into your bank accounts and steal your hard earned money.


So as the technology advancement has been observed we have also experienced a huge amount of cyber security threats that are exposed to a single individual and at the same time organizations are also affected. So one has to make sure that they understand that their personal information is vital and at any cost, it shouldn’t be compromised. The individuals should be educated and trained to use at least minimum security standards in their daily chorus.


The Cyber Attacks and Their Security Measures

The unpredictable threats to global economy.


Virus attacks Energy sectors focusing on the power grid and related components, like power generation, transmission and distribution.

The personal data of about 5,400 past and present customers of AXA Insurance in Singapore has been stolen.

One of the political leader of German Chancellor’s personal website had been hit by thousands of cyber attacks.

These are some of the most recent cyber attacks held across the globe in the past 24 hours. From my personal experience, I have lost 15000 INR from the account that has been not used for more than a year very recently.  First of all, we need to know What is cyber attacks?. Why is it matter to you to understand?.

What is Cyber Attack?

A cyber attack is an attempt to damage or destroy or steal your personal confidential information from your personal computer network or system without your knowledge and permission.

Why is it important to know?

You must be heard about "ransomware" called Wanna Cry. It locks up all the files and encrypts them in such a way that you cannot access them anymore and then demands a payment in bitcoin in order to regain access.

If it is your personal system, you ought to lose important information like bank account details, our cards get blocked, our money is stolen, if there are any personal photos, information or conversations is shared with our near- dear ones that information is misused. etc. We need to raise a complaint in cyber crime department, concerned bank, apply for new cards, new account etc. What if this affected a company that earns some millions and billions of income every year and handles multiple organizations and departments, having some lakhs of employees working for?.  A Huge loss to the company right?. What if this happens to a government body?.

It is an economic, financial and security threat to country’s economy that is people. Now, I think you believe this is an important subject to know.

Why do Cyber Attacks happen?

Human beings are only living beings who are born with intellect. Intellect will give you two different paths to choose and follow- a right and a wrong.  Now, some of the highly intelligent people who are sound enough in computer systems, networks and technology are using their intellect to follow a wrong path for 2 basic purposes:

  1. For fun or pleasure of crime

  2. Monetary gain

These causes are furtherly divided  as:

  1. Target Attacks which are made for the purpose of money.

  2. Denying the Service or to disrupt the service

  3. To gain power on an entity.

  4. To provide great loss to the economy. This is a kind of digital war between the countries.

What are the preventive measures?

Now, it’s time to know the preventive measures. Remember, any device which is in the network can be hacked. That means you should be in online. That means any of your personal or professional online accounts should be operated. How this done by others?. Only if they know your password details. How do others know your password details? If you left your accounts open that is not sign out of the account after the usage.

Some of the important tips to protect your information from cyber attack are as follows:

  1. Install reputed antivirus or anti spam software of reputed vendor. Don’t download any free software.

  2. Don’t open any links or any emails received from unknown persons.

  3. Don’t store your personal data like photos, passwords on your smart phones or send them data through emails to others. Store them in a personal folder with a lock in your personal computer.

  4. Keep changing your bank card, account and social networking site  PIN and passwords periodically.

  5. Don’t download unknown apps forwarded to your email or whatsapp.

  6. Don’t visit and try to download videos from any adult sites or anti-social sites.

  7. Do not download free songs ads.

  8. Don’t ever respond to free offers of lottery or wealth or any other attractive money offers.

  9. Don’t leave give your cards to others to operate at petrol bunks or hotels or any shops.

  10. Set a day in a week to monitor your credit and debit card statements.

  11. Subscribe to an identity protection.

  12. When searching new websites, make sure there is a closed lock symbol at the bottom right of the screen to ensure website’s security.

  13. Enable two-factor authentication for all your personal social networking accounts.

  14. Avoid logging into your accounts from public computers like internet cafe. Under can’t but position make sure you log out completely and change the password immediately from your PC.

  15. Ensure any external hardware device you use is virus free.

There is a great saying by David Mount, Director, of Micro Focus, a multinational software and information technology business based in England-“Understand what data you hold, how you are using it? and make sure that you are practicing good data”.

Your information and your security is in your hands. Be safe. Be careful.


Explain Tableau Parameter with example?


Tableau is a rapid fire business intelligence software that allows you take decisions at a very fast pace. Tableau is also a leading new generation Business Intelligence (BI) application which is also dubbed as “self-service” data discovery tool as it can be achieved with almost no support from IT staff. Tableau comes in three variants, namely – Tableau Desktop, Tableau Server and Tableau Digital. This product shines as a graphical tool or a visualization tool, where you would have relied on various other tools and takes longer durations to represent the bar charts or the pie charts. Tableau is built to perform and it provides very quick visual analytics.

Tableau Parameter with examples:

Parameters, as like in any Software or a Programming language, are those dynamic values that can be used to replace constant values in calculations or filters or references. To understand the concept of a parameter, you might want to consider a case where you want to check the number of employees who earn more than 1,00,000/- INR per month every month and generate a report. What if, if you want to generate the same report with a different base value of salary? The value can now be replaced with a parameter so that the same activity can be redone for a different parameter value - that’s Tableau Parameters for anyone to use. You can apply the values of a filter condition to change a report itself, let us consider a report of Top 10 earners of the month. The number 10 can be easily replaced on the filter by using a parameter inside that filter and assign a different value, to change the report to Top 3 earners of the month – as simple as that. We will take a look at the examples mostly at the end of the article after covering up all the necessary theory of Parameters.

Creation of a parameter is super easy:

  • In the Data pane, right click a field on which you want to create a parameter and then select Create -> Parameter.

  • Give the field a name and provide an optional comment so as to explain your parameter

  • Provide the type of data that it accepts

  • Provide a current value, which will also be the default value of the parameter

  • Provide a specific display format on the parameter control

  • Based on the option selected for ‘Allowable Values’, you must provide the values to the parameter defined

  • When all the above steps are completed, click OK to complete the process. The newly created parameter will be listed on the Parameters section (i.e., the bottom of the Data pane).

To use a parameter in calculations, you can either drag the parameter from the Data pane or drop it on the Calculation editor (either at a new location in the formula or replacing a certain part of the formula). Create another parameter just the same way as above, or you click on the first one and click on Duplicate to create a new one with the same configuration. You can then Rename it to a newer name to create two parameters with same configuration. By now you have two parameters named Placeholder 1 Selector, Placeholder 2 Selector.

Creation of a calculate field is super easy too:

  • On Analysis, select Create Calculated Field to open up the calculation editor.

  • Add the following formula into the formula area

CASE [Placeholder 1 Selector]

WHEN "Discount" THEN [Discount]

WHEN "Profit" THEN [Profit]

WHEN "Quantity" THEN [Quantity]

WHEN "Sales" THEN [Sales]


  • Click Ok to close the calculation editor

  • Now create a duplicate calculated field as described earlier with the same configuration as above.

At the end of this step, you would be creating two calculated fields named Placeholder1 and Placeholder2 as shown in the screenshot below.


Labview in Digital Waveform Graphs And Data Type

Digital Waveform Graphs

Use the digital waveform graph to display digital data, especially when you work with timing diagrams or logic analyzers. The digital waveform graph accepts the digital waveform data type, the digital data type, and an array of those data types as an input. By default, the digital waveform graph collapses digital buses, so the graph plots digital data on a single plot. If you wire an array of digital data, the digital waveform graph plots each element of the array as a different plot in the order of the array in Labview.

The digital waveform graph in Figure (a) shows the front panel plots digital data on a single plot. The VIconverts the numbers in the Numbers array to digital data and displays the binary representations of the numbers in the Binary Representations digital data indicator. In the digital graph, the number 0 appears without a top line to symbolize that all the bit values are zero. The number 255 appears without a bottom line to symbolize that all the bit values are one. Right-click the y-scale and select Expand Digital Buses from the shortcut menu to plot each sample of digital data. Each plot represents a different bit in the digital pattern. The digital waveform graph in Figure (b) shows the front panel displays the six numbers in the Numbers array.




The Binary Representations digital indicator displays the binary representations of the numbers. Each column in the table represents a bit. For example, the number 89 requires 7 bits of memory (the 0 in column 7 indicates an unused bit). Point 3 on the digital waveform graph plots the 7 bits necessary to represent the number 89 and a value of 0 to represent the unused eighth bit on plot 7. The VI in the below Figure converts an array of numbers to digital data and uses the Build Waveform function to assemble the start time, delta t, and the numbers entered in a digital data control and to display the digital data.                                                    

Digital Waveform Data Type

The digital waveform data type carries start time, delta x, the data and the attributes of a digital waveform. You can use the Build Waveform function to create a digital waveform in Labview. When you wire digital waveform data to the digital waveform graph, the graph automatically plots a waveform based on the timing information and data of the digital waveform. Wire digital waveform data to a digital data indicator to view the samples and signals of a digital waveform.

Locators & How to Install Firebug in Selenium

Tools to identify elements/objects

There are some tools to identify the elements

1. Firebug
2. IE DebugBar
3. Google Chrome Developer Tools

Firebug: Firebug mostly used by web developers, as it allows developers to find elements on the page by using the find functionality in Selenium.
IE DebugBar: This is an add-on for IE. It also has many features like Firebug.
Google Chrome Developer Tools: This is not like IE or Firefox Google chrome developer tools is built-in to the browser and will also allow you to find the
elements on the page and be able to work out its XPath.


Firebug is an Add-on for FireFox.
To Install Firebug Open http://getfirebug.com/in FireFox.

Click on Install Firebug

Click on the link “Firebug 1.6 for FireFox 3.6”

Click onfirebug-1.6.2.xpi
Click Allow

Click on Install Now

Get a message “Restart Firefox to complete your changes.” Click on “Restart
After Restarting the browser, open www.google.com
Right click on any element, we will get Inspect Element option shown below:

Click on Inspect Element, we will get locators of that element shown as below:

Showing 5 results.