CCUS Activities in the United States are described on the USA Technology Roadmap pages of the CSLF Website. The USA leads the world with 19 large-scale CCS projects either in operation or development and is also a recognised leader in CCS-related RD&D. According to the GCCSI, major RD&D activities have included the creation and maintenance of seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships and ongoing financial support for eight demonstration projects under the US Department of Energy Program's (USDoE's) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). USDoE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) implements FE's CCS programme through both extramural and intramural research, involving over 400 CO2 capture and/or storage or beneficial use projects being conducted throughout the US with a total award value in excess of $17bn. These projects range in scope from field testing and validation through commercial demonstration and deployment, and employ a vast array of CCS technologies in the power, commercial, and industrial sectors. The CCS R&D landscape is complex with many institutions and organisations interacting either within larger R&D consortiums or through bilateral agreements.
Battelle Memorial Institute
Battelle is the managing organiser of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which undertakes work in carbon capture (in its Emissions Capture Center) and in ways to prove carbon sequestration is safe and effective. Battelle is also the lead organisation of the Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP). Battelle has been proactive in developing international exchange, e.g. with China and Japan.
Carnegie Mellon University
Carnegie's CCS Regulatory Project (CCSReg) within the Department of Engineering and Public Policy (EPP) is working with a wide range of stakeholders and experts to design and facilitate the rapid adoption of a U.S. regulatory environment for the capture, transport and geological sequestration of CO2.
Clean Air Taskforce (CATF)
CATF's Asia Project is working in China and elsewhere in Asia to facilitate the development of joint business ventures between innovative energy companies and research institutions. CATF sponsors and facilitates meetings, conferences, and briefings in the US and China to familiarize key companies and institutions in the West with these kinds of projects and, more broadly, with the technological and industrial prowess found in the Chinese energy sector.
EPRI is a US-based non-profit organization with international participation extending to 40 countries that undertakes RD&D relating to the generation, delivery and use of electricity. EPRI's 2013 Research Portfolio showcases RD&D programs related to CCS. EPRI's strategic programme on carbon capture aims to establish basic knowledge of solvent, sorbent and membrane capture mechanisms. In 2010, EPRI launched a program aimed at the development and demonstration of second-generation technologies for CO2 capture. EPRI also managed a collaborative of 20 power companies for AEP's Mountaineer post-combustion capture project. Follow this link for further information of CO2 Capture R&D at EPRI.
Managed by the University of California, LBL undertakes R&D into both carbon capture and storage and is the lead organisation of the DOE Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC) a collaborative effort including LLNL, MIT, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Ohio State University, the University of California Davis (UC Davis) and Washington University in St. Louis. EFRC includes the Energy Research Frontier Center for gas separations relevant to clean air technologies and the Center for Nanoscale Control of Geologic CO2. LBL has an MoU with China's Peking University to jointly pursue the development of safe and effective carbon capture and storage techniques.
LLNL conducts R&D into safe and secure CO2 sequestration. LLNL's R&D programme includes predicting the consequences of releases of CO2, simulating subsurface pressure build-up, modelling reactive transport of CO2 in groundwater, monitoring CO2 plumes in subsurface and characterizing and assessing subsurface geology.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT Energy Initiative (MITEI)
MITEI is home of the Carbon Capture and Sequestration Technologies Program, which conducts research into technologies to capture, utilize, and store CO2 from large stationary sources. The core of the program is the Carbon Sequestration Initiative (CSI), an industrial consortium formed to investigate carbon capture and storage technologies.
Active internal collaborations also include oxy-combustion (Mech. Eng.) sorbents for CO2 capture (Chem. Eng.), geologic storage modelling (Civil and Env. Eng.).
NCCC focuses national efforts on reducing greenhouse gas emissions through technological innovation and serves as a neutral test centre for emerging carbon capture technologies. This includes technology development related to pre-combustion and post-combustion capture and oxy-fuel firing.
NETL is part of DOE's national laboratory system. NETL's Carbon Capture R&D Program is a cost-shared collaboration between government and industry and consists of two core research technology areas: post-combustion capture and pre-combustion capture. The program also supports related CO2 compression efforts. NETL manages a portfolio of laboratory and field R&D focused on CO2 storage technologies. NETL also co-ordinates the Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI), a partnership among national laboratories, industry, and academic institutions that is developing computational modelling and simulation tools to accelerate the commercialization of carbon capture technologies. DOE (NETL) is also partnering with several international organizations operating throughout the world to advance research in carbon storage. Participation in global collaborations include the CSLF, the US China Clean Energy Research Center (CERC), and the North American Carbon Storage Atlas Partnership (NACAP).
PRCI is a community of the world's leading pipeline companies, and the vendors, service providers, equipment manufacturers, and other organizations supporting the energy industry.
In 2003, the USDDOE awarded cooperative agreements to RCSPs tasked to determine the best geologic and terrestrial storage approaches and apply technologies to safely and permanently store CO2 for their specific regions. The RCSPs are public/private partnerships and include representatives from state and local agencies, regional universities, national laboratories, non-government organizations, foreign government agencies, engineering and research firms, electric utilities, oil and gas companies, and other industrial partners. The members are: Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (Big Sky); Midwest Geological Sequestration Forum (MGSC); Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP); Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB); Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP); and Western Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) and Plains CO2 Reduction Partnership (PCOR).
SC's CCS RD&D programme includes two notable operating demonstration-scale CCS projects. In 2009, SC was awarded funds by the USDoE towards retrofitting a 25MW slipstream carbon capture facility at Alabama Power's Plant Barry power plant, the largest in the world to be connected to a pulverized coal-fired generating plant. The demonstration project has been operating since 2011, and, the following year, injection began at the Citronelle oilfield 12 miles to the west of the plant. The CO2 storage plan is part of USDoE's Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB – see below). SC's Kemper County Project is an IGCC power plant that will be owned and operated by Mississippi Power Company, a subsidiary of SC and part of. The plant is expected to have an estimated peak net output of 583MW, and includes pre-combustion capture to capture 65% of the total CO emissions released from the plant. The CO2 will be transported via pipeline and used for onshore enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Commercial operation of the Kemper County Project is expected to begin in 2014, according to Southern Company.
Currently, SSEB manages two key projects under its Carbon Management Program, including: the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB); and SECARB-Ed: The Southeast Regional CO2 Sequestration Technology Training Program. SECARB is one of seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSP) established by the USDOE in 2003. The SECARB program is funded by USDOE and cost-sharing partners. SECARB's 10-year Phase III Development program began in 2007 with a goal to develop an integrated CO2 capture, transportation, and geologic storage project utilizing post-combustion CO2 captured from a coal-fired power generating facility.
The Stanford Center for Carbon Storage (SCCS) is a collaborative and multidisciplinary centre that investigates CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers and shale and coal formations, as well as in mature or depleted oil and gas reservoirs. SCCS's four main research areas are: improved process modelling for design, operation, and risk assessment; co-optimized enhanced oil and gas recovery with CO2 sequestration; geochemical processes and permanent storage monitoring of CO2 sequestration projects. Stanford's Benson Lab investigates fundamental characteristics of CO2 storage in geologic formations.
The Global Climate and Energy Project (GCEP) at Stanford University develops and manages a portfolio of energy research programmes into technologies to lower GHG emissions, including CO2 capture and CO2 storage. GCEP has a global outreach function that co-sponsors and supports energy research events and hosts study tours (e.g. China 2009) from around the world.
TxCCSA is an industry association representing major players in CCS. TxCCSA has established a wide range of links globally including UKCCSA and University College London Carbon Capture Legal Programme. However TxCCSA website has no mention of R&D activities.
TCEP is an IGCC facility that will incorporate CCS technology in a first-of-its-kind commercial clean coal power plant. TCEP will be a 400MW power/poly-gen project that will also produce urea for the US fertilizer market and capture CO2 for EOR.
University of Texas
UoT's Bureau of Economic Geology is the home of the Gulf Coast Carbon Center (GCCC) which conducts studies on geological sequestration of CO2 in the deep subsurface. GCCC has sponsors worldwide including BP and BG. UoT's Department of Chemical Engineering also hosts the Texas Carbon Management Program (TxCMP) whose focus is to develop and demonstrate evolutionary improvements to monoethanolamine (MEA) scrubbing for CO2 also appears to have developed information exchange with SINTEF in Norway.
USEA launched its CCUS Concensus programme in 2008. The programme addresses the need for global public outreach and consensus building. As part of this effort, USEA hosts an ongoing series of informational briefings and organizes national and regional conferences on CCUS and clean energy systems.
USSC is a non-profit coalition of scientists, engineers, academics, environmentalists, and leaders from the business and the public sectors.
- Coal Utilization Research Council (CURC) –(Technology Roadmap)
- The Climate Group worked with the Global CCS Institute to accelerate the demonstration of CCS technology in key coal consuming countries including China, India, US, Europe and Australia. It addressed the financial barriers, building capacity in developing countries including China and India, and increased the profile for CCS as a key climate change mitigation strategy among the portfolio of solutions.
- Geologic Society of America.