CCS has been a high priority on Norway's political agenda since 1989, when Norway first stated national targets on CO2-emissions. Norway has since taken a leading role in the development and employment of technologies for CCS. According to the GCCSI, Norway is currently home to three large-scale CCS projects – including two operational storage projects and one project in the planning stage. These are: the Sleipner CO2 Injection; the Snøhvit CO2 Injection; and Industrikraft Möre AS Norway.
Norway is a member of the Four Kingdoms Initiative, established in 2008 to explore the potential for collaboration on CCS between four oil producing countries. The three other members are the UK, Netherlands and Saudi Arabia. The Research Council of Norway (RCN) is the government organisation which overseas R&D into CCS in Norway. RCN's Department of Energy Research is co-collaborator (with Gassnova) in administering CLIMIT, the Norwegian research programme for accelerating the commercialisation of CCS by financial stimulation of RD&D. CLIMIT encompasses the RCNs subsidy scheme for R&D and Gassnova's support for development and demonstration. The Department of Energy Research is also currently responsible for eleven Centres for Environment-friendly Energy Research (FME) scheme. For CCS, these include the SUCCESS centre and the BIGCCS International CCS Research Centre (both described below). Further background information can be found on Norway's CCS Roadmap on the CSLF website.
Aker Clean Carbon (ACC)
ACC was established in 2007 to commercialise carbon capture technology, developed by a group of in-house expert engineers. ACC, together with parent organisation Aker Solutions, built the European Technology Centre Mongstad (TCM) in Norway, one of the most advanced carbon capture test facilities in the world. ACC is also leading the SOLVit R&D programme to produce improved, cost-effective amines for CO2 capture. The programme was launched by SINTEF and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and is due for completion in 2016. Scottish Power is one of the international partners.
Aker's mobile test unit (MTU), a prototype carbon capture unit, was completed in 2008 and has since been used in Norway, Scotland (Longannet) and more recently in Wilsonville in the USA. The test unit uses Aker Clean Carbon's own amine solvents, and can capture CO2 from different industrial flue gases (incl both coal and gas).
Christian Michelsen Research (CMR)
CMR is the host institution for the SUCCESS centre, one of the eleven time-limited FMEs supported by RCN. The SUCCESS centre focuses its efforts on four key areas related to CO2 storage: the in-reservoir behaviour of CO2 gas; seal properties; monitoring; and the effects of leakage on the marine environment. Partner institutions are Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Uni Research, the University of Bergen (UiB), the University of Oslo (UiO) and the University Centre in Svalbard (UNIS).
TCM is a joint venture between Gassnova (on behalf of the Norwegian state), Statoil (20%), Shell (2.44%) and Sasol (2.44%). TCM is owned by potential end users of the CO2 capture technology. TCM has selected two capture processes; a chilled ammonia process from Alstom and an amine process from Aker Clean Carbon (ACC). Designed to capture ~100,000tpa of CO2, the project will be the largest demonstration of CO2 capture technologies to date. TCM's goal is to bring in additional owners.
DNV GL's research includes: technology qualification program for CO2 Capture;
CO2 transport research; safe and efficient CO2 transport; material solutions for USC plant with CCS; and development of nano membranes for CO2 capture. DNV GL is also a founder member of the North Sea Basin Task Force (NSBTF) described below.
Gassnova SF (Gassnova) was set up the Norwegian government in 2007 to manage the government's interest in, and support the development of, carbon capture and storage technologies. Together with RCN, Gassnova overseas the implementation of the CLIMIT national programme for RD&D into carbon capture, transport and storage. RCN is in charge of the research projects and Gassnova is responsible for the prototype and demonstration projects. Gassnova also provides advice on all aspects of CCS to the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, and seeks to promote cooperation between industry and researchers.
IFE is a member of the SUCCESS programme and has been developing a reforming process for hydrogen and CO2 separation from natural gas.
NSBTF was composed of public and private bodies from countries on the rim of the North Sea. Its mandate was to develop common principles for managing and regulating the transport, injection and permanent storage of CO2 in the North Sea sub-seabed. Membership included: BERR, DEFRA, BGS, BP and Shell from the UK; and the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, the Ministry of the Environment, DNV, Statoil and Hydro from Norway. In 2010, NSBTF published the ‘One North Sea' study into North Sea cross-border CO2 transport and storage. BGS provided input on sink assessment, a GIS database of storage sites around the North Sea and assisted with stakeholder engagement.
Member of SUCCESS programme and partner in UNISCO2LAB.
NIVA is a partner in SUCCESS programme and has a record of engagement in international CO2 sequestration projects; NIVA is also the Norwegian representative in the steering committee of the newly established European CO2geoNet Association.
Lead university in the Academia sub-project of BIGCCS International Research Centre. The academic activity also includes exchange of international researchers and hosting of international workshops and conferences. NTNU has also been proactive in the establishment of the European Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage Laboratory Infrastructure (ECCSEL) which is planned to be in operation by 2015. The ECCSEL consortium, led by NTNU, teams up selected Centres of Excellence on CCS from 10 countries across Europe, with BGS as the UK partner. NTNU's Department of Energy and Process Engineering researches into thermal power cycles with CO2 capture including pre-combustion options based on high-temperature membrane technology and oxy-fuel options.
Sargas designs and builds integrated power plant facilities that capture 90% of CO2 and other coal-related pollutants. Sargas targets EOR business cases with Sargas plants delivering EOR-ready CO2 of a quality to eliminate corrosion. In 2012, Sargas entered into a commercial alliance agreement with GE in the USA.
SINTEFF is the host institution of the BIGCCS International CCS Research Centre, another of the FMEs, supported by RCN. Established in 2009, the vision of the BIGCCS Centre is to enable sustainable power generation from fossil fuels based on cost-effective CO2 capture, safe transport, and underground storage of CO2. Partners include Berkley and Sandia in the US and BGS in the UK. SINTEF also hosts the Hurum CO2 field lab, a tri-national project partnership between Norway, France and the UK, with BGS as the UK participant.
Statoil has had a recognised CCS research environment for many years, where the lessons learned from its two operating CCS storage operations, Sleipner West and Snovit, have been particularly valuable. The company has initiated both internal and external research projects, and also actively supports several national and international research programmes. In 2008, Statoil established a dedicated team to map CO2 storage opportunities in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. This work also covered the development of a methodology for characterising CO2 storage sites. In 2011, Statoil completed the first lab tests on its Compact CO2 Capture (3C) technology. With the recent change in Statoil's CCS strategy, there is considerable interest about what the company will do with this technology.
TCM is the world's largest facility for testing and improving CO2 capture and is a joint venture between Gassnova (on behalf of the Norwegian state), Statoil, Shell and Sasol. TCM has selected two processes for testing: a chilled ammonia process from Alstom; and an amine process from Aker Clean Carbon (ACC). The test results and findings have now been shared with the full-scale plants under construction or planning in the US, Canada, UK and Holland. TCM also works closely with some of the world's top universities and research institutes in the field of CCS.
Tel-Tek undertakes R&D related to industrial CCS. Tel-Tek's research on post combustion capture of CO2 involves: modelling of CO2 capture processes; control of CO2 capture processes; improved understanding of amine capture technology; and environmental improvement of CO2 capture processes.
CIPR is the Norwegian Centre of Excellence in Petroleum Technology. CIPR conducts applied research into increased oil exploitation and secure CO2 storage. Research topics include mathematical and numerical modelling of flow and transport in porous media.
UNIS has established a CO2 storage laboratory at Svalbard. Located in Longyearbyen, Spitsbergen, UNIS has initiated CO2 storage field research facilities at Svalbard with its UNIS CO2 LAB. Registered in 2012, the aim of UNIS AS is to run externally financed research and development (R&D) projects related to cleaning and storing CO2.
UiO Geosciences hosts the Oslo node of the SUCCESS CO2 Subsurface Storage programme. Recent projects have included the CO2 Risk Assessment, MOnitoring and Remediation (SSC-Ramore) projects.
University of Tromso (UiT)
UiT's Department of Geology is a member of the EU ECO2 project consortium that sets out to assess the risks associated with storage of CO2 below the seabed. The department is working to gain a better understanding the pathways and mechanisms related to fluid flow at Snøhvit field and also to evaluate potential leakage scenarios.
ZERO is an Oslo-based independent not-for-profit foundation working for zero emission solutions to the global climate challenge. ZERO's main sponsor is Statoil. CCS is one of ZERO's focus areas.