China's R&D Programme in CCS is described on the China Technology Roadmap of the CSLF website. Although China started CCS R&D activities relatively late, it has made rapid progress.
According to the GCCSI, China is taking a systematic approach, based on the establishment of a strong CCS R&D base, followed by the roll-out of large-scale demonstration projects.
China now has one of the largest numbers of CCS pilot projects in the world and has seen significant growth in the number of large-scale fully integrated projects (LSIP) being proposed. As at February 2014, the GCCSI recorded 12 LSIPs in China. These have typically favoured pre-combustion capture. However, recently, there has been a notable increase in interest in oxyfuel projects.
International S&T Collaboration on CCS has included exchange and cooperation under international frameworks such as CSLF and MEF, bilateral scientific exchanges and cooperation conducted with EU, Australia, Italy, Japan, the US, etc. These have included NZEC and China-US Clean Energy Research Center, China-Australia CO2 Geological Storage Project (CAGS), and Sino-Italy CCS Technology Cooperation Project (SICCS).
The MOST-IEA CCUS Technical Cooperation website summarizes China's Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) cooperative activities with the International Energy Agency, including the Clean Energy Ministerial and the CCUS Action Group under the Clean Energy Ministerial.
In 2012, Norwegian State Enterprise, Gassnova reported on an analysis of the major CCUS research institutions in China, based on bibliometric analysis of published research on CCS for the period of 1992-2012. Other useful information on CCUS in China can be found on the CSLF website.
CAS is a comprehensive R&D network, a merit-based academic society and a system of higher education that brings together scientists and engineers from China and around the world to address both theoretical and applied problems. CAS comprises over 100 research institutes, 12 branch academies, two universities and 11 supporting organizations in 23 provincial-level areas throughout the country. Unsurprisingly, as single entity, CAS was ranked number one by Gassnova based on the number of SCI papers published from 1994-2012. Key CAS CCS R&D institutes include:
· Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion - undertook a "Feasibility Study of CCS-Readiness in Guangdong (GDCCSR)", completed in 2013 and part funded by the UK Foreign & Commonwealth Office (FCO) jointly with the Global CCS Institute (GCCSI). Among the project partners were the University of Edinburgh and the University of Cambridge.
· Institute of Geology and Geophysics
China-Australia Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide (CAGS) Project partnered with Geoscience Australia.
Partner in WP3 on geological storage of CO2 of EU Cooperation Action within CCS China (EU-COACH).
Partner in European Capacity for Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide (EU GeoCapacity) with Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS). (An important mission was also to initiate scientific collaboration with China and other CSLF members).
· Wuhan Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics - Characteristics of potential storage sources.
· Thermal Physics Institute – Research and Demonstration of CCUS for IGCC application.
· Institute of Engineering Thermophysics – participant in COACH and in Sino-Italy CCS Technology Cooperation Project (SICCS).
· Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics - Participant in EU CACHET I&2 component, Carbon Capture and Hydrogen Production with Membrane.
· Institute of Process Engineering - R&D into chemical absorbents
Centre for Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology, China Geological Survey
Leading CAGS project on ‘Site Selection Method and Criteria of CO2 Geological Storage', launched in 2010.
China Datang Corporation
China Datang Corporation and Alstom are collaborating to build and operate two CCS demonstration projects in China. The 350 MW coal-fired Daqing power plant will use Alstom's oxy-firing capture technology, while the partners are yet to decide on either oxy-firing, chilled ammonia or advanced amines for the 1000MW Dongying coal-fired power plant. Daqing's Final Investment Decision (FID) is to be taken in 2015. Looking forward, Datang will advocate the R&D into CCS through cooperation.
CGC is a partner in the GreenGen IGCC project and also owner of CCUS Post combustion 20,000t/a demonstration project at the Tianjin Beitang power plant. The plant will use chemical absorption to capture the CO2, with the liquid CO2 being upgraded to food grade for sale in Tianjin. The project is in the preparation phase.
China Huaneng Group (CHNG)
China's largest power producer, CNNG, is leading the GreenGen IGCC project, to be China's first commercial-scale IGCC facility that includes carbon capture. Greengen's 250 MW IGCC plant is currently under construction in Tianjin, with 400MW IGCC with CCS and EOR due to be completed in 2016. CHNG is also a partner in Sino-Italy CCS Technology Cooperation Project (SICCS).
Guangdong Low-carbon Technology and Industry Research Centre (GDLRC)
GDLRC signed 10-year MoU with SCCS and UKCCSRC in September 2013 following more than five years of joint R&D CCUS activities between Guangdong and the UK. The MoU also includes the Clean Fossil Energy Development Institute (CFEDI).
HUST founded a CCUS Collaborative Innovation Center in July of 2012 and Institute of CCUS at the School of Energy and Power Engineering in October of 2012. HUST is also leading a 35MWt Oxy-fuel pilot project in Hubei Province. The aim is to set up a demonstration plant combining carbon capture, storage and utilization (CCUS). The demonstration is to be located in Yingcheng. The project also includes storage in salt mines. HUST is also the China base of the China-EU Institute for Clean And Renewable Energy (ICARE). ICARE had created a research platform to foster scientific cooperation and ideas exchange, and to prepare common projects in the field of clean and renewable energy.
NSFC funds joint research activities conducted by Chinese scientists with their foreign counterparts and also promotes fundamental research on CO2 storage.
PetroChina is the listed arm of China National Petroleum Company (CNPC), China's largest oil and gas producer and supplier. PetroChina/CNPC is the owner of Jilin Oil Field EOR Project (Phase 2) which involves natural gas isolation and EOR. Research and pilot injection has been completed and Phase 2 (operation) is due for 2015-16. The R&D centre of PetroChina/CNPC is the Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development (RIPED). Its research activities cover almost all the areas in upstream petroleum business. RIPED is also home to the State Key Laboratory of Enhanced Oil Recovery & National Energy (Experiment) Research Centre of CCUS in Beijing, a member of GCCSI.
TPRI appears to be the Technology Development Centre associated with CHNG (52% owned) and was proactive in establishment of GreenGen project. TPRI was also a partner in COACH, researching into CO2 capture in advanced energy systems. TPRI is also a partner of UK in NZEC.
Tsinghau University (TU) was co-leader of WP1 (Knowledge Sharing and Capacity Building) and WP3 (Geological Storage and Large Scale Use of CO2) of the completed COACH programme and also China lead participant for EUGEOCAPACITY (Assessing European Capacity of Geological Storage of CO2). TU is also a participant in the US-China Clean Energy Research Center and recently signed a 3-year memorandum of collaboration with American Chemical Society. A number of departments and laboratories within TU are involved in CCS R&D including:
· Within TU Department of Thermal Engineering
Institute of Engineering Thermophysics (IET) is an important partner in the Beijing Key Laboratory of CO2 Utilization and Reduction Technology. Partner in Sino-Italy CCS Technology Cooperation Project (SICCS). Also appears to be part of the CAS R&D network of excellence.
Institute of Thermal Engineering – has collaboration with Imperial College and Cambridge University.
National Engineering Research Centre (NERC) of Clean Coal Combustion (10 years of CCS R&D).
Tsinghua-BP Clean Energy Research and Education Center - (THCEC) was officially founded in 2003 as an independent, cross-disciplinary academic research centre with a one-time donation of $400,000 US$ from BP. THCEC carries out theoretical and experimental research of the system integration, technology chain evaluation and supporting scientific data for CCS. Partners of THCEC have included universities worldwide including Imperial College and Cambridge University.
· Department of Chemical Engineering - Participant in WP3 of NZEC: Case Studies for Carbon Dioxide Capture.
Shenhua's 100,000 tonnes CO2/yr CCS demonstration project, which is currently in operation, is located in Inner Mongolia. It is currently China's first pilot project for deep salt/saline aquifer storage, as well as China's first entirely coal-based CCS demonstration project. The project channels some of the CO2 exhaust discharged from Shenhua's direct coal liquefaction plant to a storage site located about 11 km to the west. Supported by the USDoE, West Virginia University also collaborated in the pre-feasibility study. Shenhua Group is also funder of the National Institute of Clean-And-Low-Carbon Energy (NICE), an industrial R&D organisation focused on reducing the environmental impact and increase the efficiency in the utilization of coal, and developing other clean energy technology including CCUS and EOR.
Sinopec's Shengli Oilfield project is a pilot scale test aimed to capture CO2 from flue gas at a scale of 30,000 t/y and inject the CO2 into an oil reservoir for EOR in low-permeability reservoirs at Shengli Oil Field. The pilot project started operation in mid-2010 and pre-feasibility studies were completed in 2012 and the Final Investment Decision for a commercial plant will be taken in 2014.
Zhejiang University (ZU)
ZU was a partner in COACH (2006-9), which aimed to strengthen cooperation between China and EU in the field of CCS. Also, according to Gassnova, was fourth in the list of TOP-20 CCS institutions for Science Citation Index (SCI) papers published to 2012. Focus on ionic liquids, amino-2-methyl-1-propanol and membrane separation. ZU has a strong partnership with Leeds University on pilot-scale research and in January 2009 established the UoL-ZJU International Centre for Sustainable Energy Sciences and Technologies. Among other issues, UoL-ZJU has addressed carbon capture and sequestration.
· Beijing Jiaotong University (long-term stability of geological storage - 2011)
· Beijing University of Chemical Technology (CO2 capture and purification - 2010)
· Beijing University of Technology (as above)
· China University of Mining Technology (CUMT) – participant in COACH project
· China University of Petroleum (East China) (as above)
· China University of Petroleum (Beijing), co-leads the geological storage work-package for NZEC alongside BGS.
· East China University of technology (capture and storage - 2010)
· Sichuan University (Geological disposal – 2009)
· Taiyuan Polytechnic University (CO2 capture and storage – 2011)
· United CBM Co. (sequestration for CBM - 2010)
 COACH was a three-year EC co-funded collaborative project with Chinese and EU partners investigating geological storage options in the Bohai Basin, China - and part of Phase 1 of EU-NZEC